WIP4 - Re-did the head, added more to the hands
WIP4 - Re-did the head, added more to the hands
WIP3 - Basic feet and WIP Hands
Roman General 3D WIp2 - deleted the last body/head as I kept having problems with multiple faces, so I spawned in a couple of cylinders and created this instead, which looks a million times better
Woop, started making him into 3d, :D
Roman General Turnaround WIP
Roman General - Finished!
Had great fun colouring this bloke. Tested out a couple of different tunic colours then decided that the red was the best.
The light blue eyes work the best I reckon, but it wouldn’t fit in with him being a Roman as they (in my opinion) had darker eyes like brown or green, and the Gauls/Brits had lighter coloured eyes.
Playing around with the different plumes and colours of the helmet itself. I do quite like the black helmet with the red plume at the bottom the most, but it doesn’t really fit with the rest of the armour.
Roman General Clothing lineup - Lined
Roman General Clothing lineup
Moodboards/Research/Reference for Roman armour, clothes and weapons
A fully equipped Roman legionary was armed with a shield (scutum), one or two javelins (pila), a sword (gladius), often a dagger (pugio), and perhaps, in the later Empire period, darts (plumbatae). Conventionally, the javelins would be thrown to disable the shields and disrupt the formation of the enemy before engaging in close combat, for which the gladius would be drawn. The soldier generally led with his shield and thrust with his sword. All types of gladius appear to have also been suitable for cutting and chopping motions as well as for thrusting.
A pugio was a dagger used by Roman soldiers. It was probably a sidearm. Like other items of legionary equipment, the dagger underwent some changes during the 1st century. Generally, it had a large, leaf-shaped blade 18 to 28 cm long and 5 cm or more in width. A raised midrib ran the length of each side, either simply standing out from the face or defined by grooves on either side. It was changed by making the blade a little thinner, about 3mm, and the handle was also made out of metal. The tang was wide and flat initially, and the grip was riveted through it, as well as through the shoulders of the blade.
Gladius was one Latin word for sword and is used to represent the primary sword of Ancient Roman foot soldiers. Early ancient Roman swords were similar to those used by the Greeks. From the 3rd century BC, the Romans adopted swords similar to those used by the Celtiberians and others during the early part of the conquest of Hispania. This sword was known as the Gladius Hispaniensis, or “Spanish Sword”
Scutum is the Latin word for “shield”, although it has in modern times come to be specifically associated with the rectangular, semi-cylindrical body shield carried by Roman legionaries.
The pilum (plural pila) was a javelin commonly used by the Roman army in ancient times. It was generally about 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) long overall, consisting of an iron shank about 7 millimetres (0.28 in) in diameter and 60 centimetres (24 in) long with pyramidal head. The shank was joined to the wooded shaft by either a socket or a flat tang.
The Lorica segmentata (segmented plates) consisted of metal strips (“girth hoops” fashioned into circular bands), fastened to internal leather straps.
The plates of lorica segmentata armour were soft iron inside and (some at least) were mild steel on the outside, making the plates hardened against damage without becoming brittle. This was a deliberate act, called case hardening, and is carried out by enriching the surface iron with carbon from organic materials packed tightly around the piece which is then heated in a forge. The strips were arranged horizontally on the body, overlapping downwards, and they surrounded the torso in two halves, being fastened at the front and back. The upper body and shoulders were protected by additional strips (“shoulder guards”) and breast- and backplates. The form of the armour allowed it to be stored very compactly, since it was possible to separate it into four sections each of which would collapse on itself into a compact mass. The fitments that closed the various plate sections together (buckles, lobate hinges, hinged straps, tie-hooks, tie-rings, etc.) were made of brass. In later variants dating from around 75–80 A.D., the fastenings of the armor were simplified. Bronze hinges were removed in favor of simple rivets, belt fastenings utilized small hooks, and the lowest two girdle plates were replaced by one broad plate.
A manica was a type of iron or bronze arm guard, with curved and overlapping metal segments or plates, fastened to leather straps, worn by Roman gladiators called crupellarii, and later by soldiers.
A greave is a piece of armour that protects the leg.
During Greek times, greaves had been mentioned in many texts, including Hesiod’s Shield of Heracles, Homer’s Iliad and Virgil’s Aeneid. While these are primarily mythological texts, they still dealt with warfare and the fact that greaves were mentioned gives evidence that they were indeed in use. There are also non-fictional testimonies of their use among Roman light infantry (or hastati) from Polybius and Vegetius. These greaves were thought to be mass-produced by the Romans using presses on sheets of metal and attaching lining, usually leather or cloth. While it is generally assumed that greaves were generally worn in pairs, significant amounts of evidence has been found that many wore just a single greave on their left or right leg. Many skeletons have been found buried with only a single greave, including gladiators and soldiers. It is also thought that people wore single greaves as a sign of status, as opposed to any practical use.
A galea was a Roman soldier’s helmet. Some gladiators, myrmillones, also wore a bronze galea with a face mask and a decoration, often a fish on its crest. The exact form or design of the helmet varied significantly over time, between differing unit types, and also between individual examples - pre-industrial production was by hand – so it is not certain to what degree there was any standardization even under the Roman Empire.
Under the Armour
Tunic: basic garment worn under the armour by all soldiers in the Republic and early Empire. Normally made of wool. Tunics originally consisted simply of a piece of rectangular cloth sewed to an identical piece, with holes for the arms and head left unsewn. Later, it became fashionable for tunics to be produced with sleeves, and worn with braccae.
Focale: scarf worn by Roman legionaries to protect the neck from chafing caused by constant contact with the soldier’s armor (typically lorica hamata or lorica segmentata) and helmet.
( http://www.legionxxiv.org/equipment/cingulum.jpg )
Balteus (sword belt): sword belt.
( http://legvi.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/xpants2.jpg )
Braccae: woollen trousers.
Cloak: two types of cloaks were used, the sagum and the paenula. Both were made from wool, which insulated and also contained natural oil to repel water. It was fastened with a fibula. The paenula was hooded in colder climates.
Caligae: military boots worn by Roman legionaries and auxiliaries throughout the history of the Roman Republic and Empire. The boots were made from leather and laced up the center of the foot and onto the top of the ankle. Iron hobnails were hammered into the sole for added strength. Similar to the modern cleat.
Pteruges: skirt of leather or fabric strips that is worn around the waist to protect the upper legs. Pteruges could be fitted with small metal studs and plates to provide additional protection.